Deveradurezh (yezhoniezh) : diforc'h etre ar stummoù

Mont d’ar merdeerezh Mont d’ar c’hlask
Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
D (Robot ouzhpennet: bg, ca, de, eo, es, fr, it, ja, nl, nn, no, ru)
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Er [[yezhoniezh]] e vez implijet an termen '''troadelldeveradur''' evit komz eus ur un argerzhadur [[morfologiezh]] diazezet war implij [[kenger|kengerioù]], gantañ da bal kemmañ [[rummad yezhadurel]] pe [[ster]] ur [[ger]] bennak, da skouer:
 
:* ''ober'' > ''adober'' (cheñchkemm ster)
Deveret e vez ur ger pa vez staget morfemoù all outañ evit cheñch [[rummad]] pe [[ster]] ur [[ger]] bennak, da skwer:
:* ''ober'' > ''oberour'' (cheñchkemm rummad, [[verb]] > [[anv-kadrankadarn]])
 
'''[[Morfem stag|MorfemMorfemoù krouiñstag]] ([[kenger|kengerioù]]) a vez implijet atav evit an deveradur, graet anezhe ''morfemoù krouiñ'' ([[saozneg|saoz.]] ''derivational morpheme'') pa vezont implijet evel-hen. a vez graet eus ar morfem-mañ. [[Morfem stag|Morfemoù stag]] eo ar re a dalvez da cheñch rummad yezhadurel ur ger evel-hen.
:''ober'' > ''adober'' (cheñch ster)
:''ober'' > ''oberour'' (cheñch rummad, [[verb]] > [[anv-kadran]])
 
Implijet e c'hell bezañ meur a doare kenger, da skouer:
'''[[Morfem|Morfem krouiñ]]''' (saoz. ''derivational morpheme'') a vez graet eus ar morfem-mañ. [[Morfem stag|Morfemoù stag]] eo ar re a dalvez da cheñch rummad yezhadurel ur ger evel-hen.
 
* '''[[Rakger]]''':
:
 
* '''[[Lostger]]''':
In [[linguistics]], '''derivation''' is "Used to form new words, as with ''happi-ness'' and ''un-happy'' from ''happy'', or ''determination'' from ''determine''. A contrast is intended with the process of [[inflection]], which uses another kind of affix in order to form variants of the same word, as with ''determine/determine-s/determin-ing/determin-ed''.<ref>Crystal, David (1999): The Penguin Dictionary of Language. - Penguin Books - England.</ref>
:
 
* '''[[Enger]]''':
A derivational [[Affix|suffix]] usually applies to [[word]]s of one [[syntactic category]] and changes them into words of another [[Syntax|syntactic</small> category]]. For example, the [[English language| English]] derivational</sup> [[Affix|suffix]] ''-ly'' changes [[adjective]]s into [[adverb]]s (''slow'' → ''slowly'').
:
 
* '''[[Troger]]''':
Some examples of English derivational suffixes:
:
 
* adjective-to-[[noun]]: ''-ness'' (''slow'' → ''slowness'')
* adjective-to-[[verb]]: ''-ise'' (''modern'' → ''modernise'')
* noun-to-[[adjective]]: ''-al'' (''recreation'' → ''recreational'')
* noun-to-verb: ''-fy'' (''glory'' → ''glorify'')
* verb-to-adjective: ''-able'' (''drink'' → ''drinkable'')
* verb-to-noun (abstract): ''-ance'' (''deliver'' → ''deliverance'')
*verb-to-noun (concrete): -''-er'' (write-writer)
 
Although derivational affixes do not necessarily modify the [[syntactic category]], they modify the meaning of the base. In many cases, derivational affixes change both the syntactic category and the meaning: ''modern'' → ''modernize'' ("to make modern"). The modification of meaning is sometimes predictable: ''Adjective + ness'' → ''the state of being (Adjective)''; (''white''→ ''whiteness'').
 
A [[Prefix (linguistics)|prefix]] (''write'' → '' re-write''; ''lord'' → ''over-lord'') will rarely change syntactic category in English. The derivational [[Prefix (linguistics)|prefix]] ''un-'' applies to adjectives (''healthy'' → ''unhealthy''), some verbs (''do'' → ''undo''), but rarely nouns. A few exceptions are the prefixes en- and be-. En- (em- before [[Labial_consonant|labials]]) is usually used as a transitive marker on verbs, but can also be applied to adjectives and nouns to form transitive verb: ''circle'' (verb) → ''encircle'' (verb); but ''rich'' (adj) → ''enrich'' (verb), ''large'' (adj) → ''enlarge'' (verb), ''rapture'' (noun) → ''enrapture'' (verb), ''slave'' (noun) → ''enslave''(verb).
 
Note that derivational affixes are [[bound morpheme]]s. In that, derivation differs from [[Compound (linguistics)|compounding]], by which ''free'' morphemes are combined (''lawsuit'', ''Latin professor''). It also differs from [[inflection]] in that inflection does not change a word's syntactic category and creates not new lexemes but new [[word form]]s (''table'' → ''tables''; ''open'' → ''opened'').
 
Derivation may occur without any change of form, for example ''telephone'' (noun) and ''to telephone''. This is known as [[conversion (linguistics)|conversion]]. Some linguists consider that when a word's syntactic category is changed without any change of form, a [[null morpheme]] is being affixed.
 
==References==
{{reflist}}
 
==Gwelit ivez:==
* [[Morfologiezh]]
* [[Displegadur (yezhoniezh)|Displegadur]]
* [[Ger kevrennek]]
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