Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Boiotia"

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[[Skeudenn:GreeceViotia.png|thumb|200px|right|Boiotia, [[nomos]] e [[Gres]]]]
 
'''Boiotia''' (Βοιωτία e [[gresianeg]], ''Boeotia'' e [[latin]]), pe '''Beotia''', a oa ur vro en [[Henc'hres]], en hanternoz da reter [[pleg-mor Korintos]], hag a zo un [[nomos]] e [[Hellaz]] a hiriv.
 
Er c'hreisteiz dezhi e oa [[Megaris]] ha menezieg [[Kiteron]], [[Attika]] en tu all dezhi. En hanternoz e oa [[Lokris |Lokris opontek]] ha [[strizh-mor]] [[Euripos]] (e Mor Egea etre Enez-Euboia ha douar-bras Boeotia), ha [[Fokis]] er c'hornôg.
An Euripos (Εύριπος e gresianeg) zo ur strizh-mor eus Attika, en Bro-C'hres .
 
== Mojennoù ==
E [[mitologiezh]] [[Henc'hres]] e vez kaoz alies eus Boeotia. Kalz mojennoù zo liammet ouzh [[Tebai]] ha [[Kadmos]], he diazezer, hag ouzh [[Orc'homenos]], bro ar [[Minyae]].
 
E [[mitologiezh]] [[Henc'hres]] e vez kaoz alies eus Boeotia. Kalz mojennoù zo liammet ouzh [[Tebai]] ha [[Kadmos]], he diazezer, hag ouzh [[Orc'homenos]], bro ar [[Minyae]].
 
Graia (Γραία), ar pezh a dalvez kozh, a vefe ar geoded koshañ eus Bro-C'hres a-hervez. ar Γραικός, ''Graecus'', zo liammet ouzh 'Graia' gant skrivagnerien zo<ref>Hatzidakis, 1977, e geriadur Babiniotis</ref>. [[Aristoteles]] en deus skrivet e oa bet savvet ar geoded a-raok al [[Liñvadenn Veur]]. Kavet ez eus bet ar memes kredenn diwar-benn orin keoded Graia war ur stelenn, [[Bloazdanevell Paros]], dizoloet e 1687 ha bloaziet eus [[-267]]-[[-263]], miret hiziv en [[Oxford]] hag e [[Paros]]. Meneget eo ar geoded kozh-mañ ivez en oberennoù [[Homeros]], [[Paosanias ar Beajour]], [[Toukidides]], etc.
 
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The origin of Boeotians lays in mountain [[Boeon]]<ref>History of the language sciences [http://books.google.com/books?id=ygDHVYyEXOMC&pg=PA439&dq=Greek+Epirus+Boeotians&sig=s9M2uGteXCFvljYy4k7SERviW6I]
by Sylvain Auroux</ref> ([[Epirus (region)|Epirus]]-West [[Macedon]]ia), where [[Graecus]] is connected with Epirus by [[Aristotle]].
They were also related to [[Thessalia]]ns as their [[aeolic]] dialect indicates.
 
According to some ancient Greek sources, there were two great kings who ruled in [[Thebes]] (and Boeotia) before the [[Cataclysm]] (deluge) which happened in the reigns of [[Deucalion]] (in Thessaly), [[Cranaos]] (in Attica) and the sons of [[Lycaon (mythology)|Lycaon]] (in Arcadia): [[Calydnos]] ([[Κάλυδνος]]) and [[Ogygos]] ([[Ώγυγος]]).{{fact|date=December 2007}}
 
==History==
 
Boeotia had significant political importance, owing to its position on the north shore of the [[Gulf of Corinth]], extending westwards between [[Thessaly]] and [[Peloponnesus]] to the [[Isthmus of Corinth]]; the strategic strength of its frontiers; and the ease of communication within its extensive area. On the other hand, the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development. The Boeotian people, although they included great men like [[Pindar]], [[Hesiod]], [[Epaminondas]], [[Pelopidas]] and [[Plutarch]], were portrayed proverbially dull by Athenians (cf. ''Boeotian ears'' incapable of appreciating music or poetry and ''Hog-Boeotians'' ,[[Cratinus]].310)
 
The importance of the legendary [[Minyae]] has been confirmed by its archaeological remains (notably the "Treasury of Minyas"). The Boeotian population seems to have entered the land from the north at a date possibly before the [[Dorian]] invasion. With the exception of the Minyae, the original peoples were soon absorbed by these immigrants, and the Boeotians henceforth appear as a homogeneous nation.
 
[[Image:Cup birds Boeotia Louvre A572.jpg|thumb|250px|Boeotian cup painted with birds &mdash; [[560 BC|560]]&ndash;[[540 BC]], found in [[Thebes, Greece|Thebes]], [[Greece]]]]
 
In historical times, the leading city of Boeotia was Thebes, whose central position and military strength made it a suitable capital; other major towns were Orchomenus, [[Plataea]], and [[Thespiae]]. It was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as [[Athens]] had annexed the [[Attica|Attic]] communities. But the outlying cities successfully resisted this policy, and only allowed the formation of a loose federation which, initially, was merely religious.
 
While the Boeotians, unlike the [[Arcadia|Arcadians]], generally acted as a united whole against foreign enemies, the constant struggle between the cities was a serious check on the nation's development. Boeotia hardly figures in history before the late 6th century BC. Previous to this, its people are chiefly known as the makers of a type of geometric pottery, similar to the [[Dipylon]] ware of Athens. In about [[519 BC]], the resistance of [[Plataea]] to the federating policy of Thebes led to the interference of Athens on behalf of the former; on this occasion, and again in [[507 BC]], the Athenians defeated the Boeotian levy.
 
During the [[Persian Wars|Persian invasion]] of [[480 BC]], Thebes assisted the invaders. In consequence, for a time, the presidency of the Boeotian League was taken from Thebes, but in [[457 BC]] the [[Sparta|Spartans]] reinstated that city as a bulwark against Athenian aggression after the [[Battle of Tanagra (457 BC)|Battle of Tanagra]]. Athens retaliated by a sudden advance upon Boeotia, and after the victory at the [[Battle of Oenophyta]] took control of the whole country except the capital. For ten years the land remained under Athenian control, which was exercised through the newly installed democracies; but in [[447 BC]] the people revolted, and after a victory at the [[Battle of Coronea (447 BC)|Battle of Coronea]] regained their independence.
 
In the [[Peloponnesian War]] the Boeotians fought zealously against Athens. Though slightly estranged from Sparta after the [[peace of Nicias]], they never abated their enmity against their neighbours. They rendered good service at [[Syracuse, Italy|Syracuse]] and at the [[Battle of Arginusae]] in the closing years of the Pelopennesian War; but their greatest achievement was the decisive victory at the [[Battle of Delium]] over the Athenian army ([[424 BC]]), in which both their heavy infantry and their cavalry displayed unusual efficiency and the [[Battle of Tanagra]] in [[423 BC]] in which the [[Spartans]] helped to defeat the Athenians. However, two months later, the Athenians regrouped and defeated Thebes at the [[Battle of Oenophyta]] and took control of Boeotia, taking down the wall the Spartans had built. With the victory the Athenians also occupied [[Phocis]], the original source of the conflict and the Opuntian [[Locrians|Locris]].<ref>{{cite book | title=The Ancient Greeks: A Critical History| author=Fine, John VA| date=1983| pages=354-355| publisher=Harvard University Press| }}</ref>
 
About this time the Boeotian League comprised eleven groups of sovereign cities and associated townships, each of which elected one Boeotarch or minister of war and foreign affairs, contributed sixty delegates to the federal council at Thebes, and supplied a contingent of about a thousand foot and a hundred horse to the federal army. A safeguard against undue encroachment on the part of the central government was provided in the councils of the individual cities, to which all important questions of policy had to be submitted for ratification. These local councils, to which the propertied classes alone were eligible, were subdivided into four sections, resembling the [[prytaneis]] of the Athenian council, which took it in turns to vote on all new measures.
 
Boeotia took a prominent part in the war of the [[Corinthian League]] against Sparta, especially at [[Haliartus]] and the [[Battle of Coronea]] ([[395 BC|395]]-[[394 BC]]). This change of policy seems due mainly to the national resentment against foreign interference. Yet disaffection against Thebes was now growing rife, and Sparta fostered this feeling by stipulating for the complete independence of all the cities in the peace of Antalcidas ([[387 BC]]). In [[374 BC]] [[Pelopidas]] restored the Theban dominion and their control was never significantly challenged again.
 
Boeotian contingents fought in all the campaigns of [[Epaminondas]] against the Spartans, most notably at the [[Battle of Leuctra]] in [[371 BC]], and in the later wars against [[Phocis]] ([[356 BC|356]]-[[346 BC]]); while in the dealings with [[Philip of Macedon]] the cities merely followed Thebes. The federal constitution was also brought into accord with the democratic governments now prevalent throughout the land. The sovereign power was vested in the popular assembly, which elected the Boeotarchs (between seven and twelve in number), and sanctioned all laws. After the [[Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC)|Battle of Chaeroneia]], in which the Boeotian heavy infantry once again distinguished itself, the land never rose again to prosperity.
 
The destruction of Thebes by [[Alexander the Great]] ([[335 BC]]) seems to have removed the political energy of the Boeotians. They never again pursued an independent policy, but followed the lead of protecting powers. Though military training and organization continued, the people proved unable to defend the frontiers, and the land became more than ever the "dancing-ground of Ares". Though enrolled for a short time in the Aetolian League (about [[245 BC]]) Boeotia was generally loyal to [[Macedon]], and supported its later kings against [[Rome]]. Rome dissolved the league, which, however, was allowed to revive under [[Augustus]], and merged with the other central Greek federations in the [[Achaea|Achaean]] synod. The death-blow to the country's prosperity was given by the devastations during the [[First Mithridatic War]].
 
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==Anv dismegañsus==
Boeotia zo deuet da vout un anv kar d'ar sotoni, abalamour, marteze, ma kave da Ateniz e talvezent keroc'h dre ma oa brudet o sevenadur e-skoz hini o amezeien.
 
Boeotia zo deuet da vout un anv kar d'ar sotoni, abalamour, marteze, ma kave da Ateniz e talvezent keroc'h dre ma oa brudet o sevenadur e-skoz hini o amezeien.
 
 
==Tud brudet Beotia==
*[[Pindaros]]
*[[Ploutarc'hos]]
*[[Narkissos ]]
*[[Bakis]]
*[[LukasLukaz (an avielour)]]
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==See also==
*[[Aeolic Greek]]
 
 
*{{1911}}
 
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==References==
{{reflist}}
[[Rummad:Douaroniezh Henc'hres]]
[[Rummad:Boiotia]]
 
[[el:Βοιωτοί]]
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