Verb-stagañ : diforc'h etre ar stummoù

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Diverradenn ebet eus ar c'hemm
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: 笨 (''bèn''): "bezañ sot"
 
Ne implijer ar verb-stagañ 是 (''shì'') nemet evit liammañ ur verb ouzh ur [[renadenn]] anv pe un anv-gwan mui ar [[Rannig (yezhoniiezhyezhoniezh)|rannig]] 的 ''de'', da skouer:
 
: 我是老师 "Me 'zo kelenner"
 
* Japaneg
Meur a verb-stagañ disheñvel ez eus e [[japaneg]] implijet hervez o arc'hwel resis er frazenn, da skouer だ (''da'') ha です (''desu'') evit [[Prezegad|prezegata]] keit ha ma vez implijet ''na'' and で (''de'') e diabarzh ar frazennoù evit kenliammañ ha spisaat.
[[Japaneg]] has copulas which would most often be translated as one of the so-called be-verbs of English. The Japanese copula has many forms. The words ''da'' and ''desu'' are used to [[predicate (grammar)|predicate]] sentences, while ''na'' and ''de'' are used within sentences to modify or connect.
 
Alies e talvez ar verboù-stagañ e japaneg evit ober dave da gevatalderioù, da lâret eo "X 'zo kevatal da Y", da skouer:
Japanese sentences with copulas most often equate one thing with another, that is, they are of the form "A is B." Examples:
 
* 私は学生だ。''Watashi wa gakusei da.'' "I am a student." (lit., I <small>TOPIC</small> student <small>COPULA</small>)
: 私は学生'''だ''' (''Watashi wa gakusei '''da''''')
* これはペンです。''Kore wa pen desu.''. "This is a pen." (lit., this <small>TOPIC</small> pen <small>COPULA-POLITE</small>)
* 私は学生だ。''Watashi wa gakusei da.'' "I am a student." (lit.,: I <small>TOPIC</small> student <small>COPULA</small>)
: "Studier/ez '''on'''" / "Me ''''zo''' studier/ez
 
: これはペン'''です''' (''Kore wa pen '''desu''''')
: "dra-mañ" <small>[[Merk an tem|MERK TEM]]|</small>"kreion" <small>VERB-STAGAÑ SEVEN</small>)
: "Ur c'herion '''eo''' hemañ" / "Hemañ ''''zo''' ur c'hreion"
 
The difference between ''da'' and ''desu'' is simple: ''desu'' is [[Japanese honorifics|more formal and polite]] than ''da''. Thus, the two sentences below are identical in meaning and differ only in the speaker's politeness to the [[addressee]].
* あれはホテルだ。''Are wa hoteru da''. "That's a hotel." (lit., that <small>TOPIC</small> hotel <small>COPULA</small>)
* あれはホテルです。''Are wa hoteru desu''. "That is a hotel." (lit., that <small>TOPIC</small> hotel <small>COPULA-POLITE</small>)
 
:あれはホテルだ。(''Are wa hoteru da'')
Japanese sentences may be predicated with copulas or with verbs. However, ''desu'' may not always be a predicate. In some cases, its only function is to make a sentence predicated with a [[stative verb]] more polite. However, ''da'' always functions as a predicate, so it cannot be combined with a stative verb, because sentences need only one predicate. See the examples below.
* あれはホテルだ。''Are wa hoteru da''. "That's a hotel." (lit., :that <small>TOPIC</small> hotel <small>COPULA</small>)
* このビールはうまい。''Kono bīru wa umai.'' "This beer is good." (lit., this beer <small>TOPIC</small> be-tasty)
:"That's a hotel"
* このビールはうまいです。''Kono bīru wa umai desu.'' "This beer is good." (lit., this beer <small>TOPIC</small> be-tasty <small>POLITE</small>)
 
* <sup>*</sup>このビールはうまいだ。<sup>*</sup>''Kono bīru wa umai da.'' This is unacceptable because ''da'' may only serve as a predicate.
:あれはホテルです。''Are wa hoteru desu''
* あれはホテルです。''Are wa hoteru desu''. "That is a hotel." (lit., :that <small>TOPIC</small> hotel <small>COPULA-POLITE</small>)
:"That is a hotel."
 
 
Japanese also has two verbs corresponding to English "to be": ''aru'' and ''iru''. They are not copulae but existential verbs. ''Aru'' is used for inanimate objects, including plants, while ''iru'' is used for people and animals, though there are exceptions to this generalization., da skouer:
 
*: 本はテーブルに'''ある'''(''Hon wa tēburu ni '''aru''. "The book is on a table."''')
: "Al levr ''''zo''' war an taol" / "War an taol '''emañ''' al levr"
 
*: キムさんはここに'''いる'''(''Kimu-san wa koko ni '''iru''. "Kim is here." ''')
Japanese also has two verbs corresponding to English "to be": ''aru'' and ''iru''. They are not copulae but existential verbs. ''Aru'' is used for inanimate objects, including plants, while ''iru'' is used for people and animals, though there are exceptions to this generalization.
: "Kim ''''zo''' amañ" / "Amañ '''emañ''' Kim"
* 本はテーブルにある。''Hon wa tēburu ni aru''. "The book is on a table."
* キムさんはここにいる。''Kimu-san wa koko ni iru''. "Kim is here."
 
* '''Existential usage'''
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