Verb-stagañ : diforc'h etre ar stummoù

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Er [[yezhoniezh]] e vez implijet an termen '''verb-stagañ''' ([[Saozneg|saoz]]: [[:en:Copula|''copula'']]) evit komz eus ur [[verb]] implijet evit liammañ [[Rener (yezhoniezh)|rener]] ur [[frazenn]] ouzh [[prezegad]] ar frazenn. Verboù amreizh-tre eo ar verboù-stagañ e meur a yezh, en o zouez ar [[verboù indezeuropek]].
 
Un arc'hwel hag a denn da framm [[Kevreadurezh|kevreadurezhel]] eo hini ar verboù-stagañ neuze kentoc'h evit reiñ titour [[Semantik|semantikel]] diwar-benn un ober pe ur stad, da skouer:
Alies a-walc'h e implijer an tremen "verb-stagañ" en un doare ledan evit ober dave da verb-stagañ pennañ ar yezh bennak, da lâret eo "bezañ" e [[brezhoneg]]. It can also be used to refer to all such verbs in the language: in that case, English copulas include "to be", "to become", "to get", "to feel", and "to seem". Other verbs have secondary uses as copulative verbs, as ''fall'' in "The zebra fell victim to the lion."
 
: "Kelennerez '''eo''' ma mamm"
Although it might not itself express an action or condition, it serves to equate (or associate) the subject with the predicate.
: PREZEGAD eo RENER
 
Alies a-walc'h e implijer an tremen "verb-stagañ" en un doare ledan evit ober dave da verb-stagañ pennañ ar yezh bennak, da lâret eo "bezañ" e [[brezhoneg]]. ItHa canret alsoeo bekompren usede toc'hell referbezañ toimplijet allverboù such verbs in the language: in that case, English copulas includeevel "to bebezañ", "toe become",degouezhioù "toma get",ne "todalvzont feel",ket andda "toverboù-stagañ seem".dre ma Otherne verbsliammont haveket secondaryar usesrener asouzh copulativear verbsprezegad, asda ''fall'' in "The zebra fell victim to the lion."skouer:
Daoust ha ma vez implijet verboù pe elfennoù verbheñvel evit liammañ ar rener ouzh ar prezegad e c'hell [[Yezh|yezhoù]] zo implijout [[Rumamd yezhadur|rummadoù yezhadur]] all.
 
 
==The copula in English==
===Use===
We can identify several sub-uses of the copula:
*Identity: "I only want to ''be'' myself." "When the area behind the dam fills, it will ''be'' a lake." "The Morning Star ''is'' the Evening Star." "Boys ''will be'' boys."
*Class membership. To belong to a set or class: "She could ''be'' married." "Dogs ''are'' canines." "Moscow ''is'' a large city." Depending on one's point of view, all other uses can be considered derivatives of this use, including the following non-copular uses in English, as they all express a [[subset]] relationship.
*Predication (property and relation attribution): "It hurts to ''be'' blue." "Will that house ''be'' big enough?" "The hen ''is'' next to the cockerel." "I ''am'' confused." Such attributes may also relate to temporary conditions as well as inherent qualities: "I will ''be'' tired after running." "Will you ''be'' going to the play tomorrow?" but please note that a linking verb has nothing to do with these so called "Be"- verbs.(see below)
 
=== Non-copular uses ===
 
*As an [[auxiliary verb]]:
**To form the passive voice: "I ''was'' told that you wanted to see me"
**To add continuous aspect to tenses: "It is raining"
*Meaning "to exist": "I want only to ''be'', and that is enough." "There's no sense in making a scientific inquiry about what species the Loch Ness Monster is, without first establishing that the Loch Ness Monster indeed ''is.''" "To be or not to be, that is the question."
Note that the auxiliary verb function derives from the copular function; and, depending on one's point of view, one can still interpret the verb as a copula and the following verbal form as being adjectival. [[Abelard]] in his Dialectica made an argument against the idea that the copula can express existence based on a [[reductio ad absurdum]] (Kneale - Kneale 1962 and Moro 1997).
 
Verboù-stagañ all a c'hell bezañ implijet ivez avat ouzhpenn ar verb-stagañ pennañ-se pe verboù implijet gwezh ha gwezh all evel verboù-stagañ, da skouer "erruout" e frazennoù evel "Erru eo bras".
=== A unified theory of copular sentences ===
 
Yezhoù zo a ra hep verboù-stagañ ebet pe hep verboù-stagañ e degouezhioù [[Yezhadur|yezhadurel]] resis (Sellit ouzh "[[Verb-stagañ mann]]").
Along with copular sentences where the canonical order of predication is displayed - that is, the [[Subject (grammar)|subject]] precedes the [[Predicate (grammar)|predicate]] - as in ''a picture of the wall is the cause of the riot'' there can also be "inverse copular sentences" where this order is mirrored as in ''the cause of the riot is a picture of the wall'' (cf. Everaert et al 2006). Although these two sentences are superficially very similar it can be shown that they embody very different properties. So, for example it is possible to form a sentence like ''which riot do you think that a picture of the wall is the cause of'' but not ''which wall do you think that the cause of the riot was a picture of''. The distinction between these two types of sentences, technically referred to as "canonical" vs. [[inverse copula]]r sentences, respectively - and the unified theory of copular sentences associated to it - has been proved to be valid across-languages and has lead to some refinement of the theory of clause structure. In particular it challenges one of the major dogmas of the theory of clause structure, i.e. that the two basic constituents of a sentence Noun Phrase and Verb Phrase are associated to the logical/grammatical functions of subject and predicate (cf. [[phrase structure rules]] and [[sentence (linguistics)]]). In fact, copular sentences show that this axiom is not adequate on empirical grounds since the Noun Phrase that cooccurs with the Verb Phrase in a copular sentence can be the predicate and the subject be contained in the Verb Phrase. Interestingly, it has been suggested that inverse copular sentences appear to play a sharp role in setting the [[pro-drop]] parameter. In Italian, for example in sentences of the type Noun Phrase verb Noun Phrase, the verb generally agrees with the Noun Phrase on the left with one exception: inverse copular setences. One can construe minimal pairs like ''the cause of the riot is/*are these pictures of the wall'' vs. ''la causa della rivolta sono/*è queste foto del muro'': the two sentences are one the gloss of the other with only one difference: the copula is singular in Italian and plural in English. If one does not want to give up the idea that agreement is on the left, then the only option is to assume that pro occurs between the copula and the Noun Phrase on the left. That pro can occur as a predicate must be in fact independently assumed to assign a proper structure to sentences like ''sono io'' (is me: "it's me") which can by no means be considered a transformation of *''io sono'', which has no meaning.
 
Daoust ha ma vez implijet verboù pe elfennoù verbheñvel evit liammañ ar rener ouzh ar prezegad e c'hell [[Yezh|yezhoù]] zo implijout [[Rumamd yezhadur|rummadoù yezhadur]] all.
===Copula deletion===
In informal speech, the copula may be dropped. This is a feature of [[African American Vernacular English]] but is also used by a variety of English speakers in informal contexts. Ex. "Where you at?" "We at the store." [[E-Prime]] is a variant of the English language that prohibits the use of the copula in all its forms.
 
Bez' e c'heller isrannañ ar verboù-stagañ hervez o implij resis er frazenn:
===Conjugation===
As in most [[Indo-European language]]s, the English copula is the most irregular verb, due to constant use. Most English verbs (traditionally known as "[[weak verb]]s") have just four separate forms, e.g. "start", "starts", "starting", "started". A large minority of verbs (traditionally known as "[[strong verb]]s") have five separate forms, e.g. "begin", "begins", "beginning", "began", "begun". "To be" is a very special case in having eight forms: "be", "am", "is", "are", "being", "was", "were", "been". Traditionally, it had even more, including "art", "wast", "wert", and, occasionally, "beest" as a subjunctive.
 
*Identity: "I only want to ''be'' myself." "When the area behind the dam fills, it will ''be'' a lake." "The Morning Star ''is'' the Evening Star." "Boys ''will be'' boys."
===Copula as subset relator===
From one perspective, the copula always relates two things as subsets. Take the following examples:
#''John is a doctor.''
#''John and Mary are doctors.''
#''Doctors are educated.''
#''Mary is running.''
#''Running is fun.''
 
*Class membership. To belong to a set or class: "She could ''be'' married." "Dogs ''are'' canines." "Moscow ''is'' a large city." Depending on one's point of view, all other uses can be considered derivatives of this use, including the following non-copular uses in English, as they all express a [[subset]] relationship.
Example 1 includes John in the set of all doctors. Example 2 includes John and Mary both in the set of all doctors. Example 3 includes the set of doctors in the set of those who are educated.
 
*Predication (property and relation attribution): "It hurts to ''be'' blue." "Will that house ''be'' big enough?" "The hen ''is'' next to the cockerel." "I ''am'' confused." Such attributes may also relate to temporary conditions as well as inherent qualities: "I will ''be'' tired after running." "Will you ''be'' going to the play tomorrow?" but please note that a linking verb has nothing to do with these so called "Be"- verbs.(see below)
Example 4 is different. Example 4 includes Mary's [[Stative verb|state]] at the time of utterance in the [[Dynamic verb|set of states consistent with running]]. Example 5 then includes the set of states consistent with running in the set of states consistent with fun.
 
==Copulas in other languages==
Languages tend to use copulas in quite different ways.
 
* Hungarian and Russian: [[Verb-stagañ mann]]
 
* Turkish
In order to refer to space (e.g. Robert is in the house), various verbs are used as copula, e.g. _yankA_ [yaNka'] (lit.: to sit) for humans, _han/he_ [haN'/he'] (to stand upright) for inanimates of a certain shape. So, "Robert is in the house" could be translated as "Robert timahel yanke (yelo)", whereas "there's one restaurant next to the gas station" translates as "owotetipi wigli-oinazin kin hel isakib wanzi he".
 
===* Japanese===
[[Japanese language|Japanese]] has copulas which would most often be translated as one of the so-called be-verbs of English. The Japanese copula has many forms. The words ''da'' and ''desu'' are used to [[predicate (grammar)|predicate]] sentences, while ''na'' and ''de'' are used within sentences to modify or connect.
 
です "desu" may be pronounced っす "ssu" in colloquial speech. In [[Kansai-ben]], the copula is often replaced with ''ya''.
 
==* '''Existential usage'''==
The existential usage of "to be" is distinct from and yet, in some languages, intimately related to its copulative usage. In language as opposed to formal logic, existence is a predicate rather than a quantifier, and the passage from copulative to existential usage can be subtle. In modern linguistics one commonly speaks of existential constructions - prototypically involving an [[expletive]] like ''there'' - rather than existential use of the verb itself. So for example in English a sentence like "there is a problem" would be considered an instance of existential construction. Relying on unified theory of copular sentences, it has been proposed that ''there''-sentences are subtypes of inverse copular sentences (see Moro 1997 and "existential sentences and expletive ''there''" in Everaert et al. 2006 for a detailed discussion of this issue and a historical survery of the major proposals).
 
*'''Swedish''': ''Varför bestiga Mt. Everest? Därfor att det '''finns''' där.'' — ''Why climb Mt. Everest? Because it ''is'' there''. — [[George Mallory]]
 
In [[ontology]], philosophical discussions of the word "be" and its conjugations takes place over the meaning of the word ''is,'' the third person singular form of 'be', and whether the other senses can be [[Reduction (philosophy)|reduced]] to one sense. For example, it is sometimes suggested that the "is" of existence is reducible to the "is" of property attribution or class membership; to be, [[Aristotle]] held, is to be ''something''. Of course, the gerund form of "be", ''being'', is its own (vexed) topic: see [[being]] and [[existence]].
 
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