Diforc'hioù etre adstummoù "Yideg"

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Reizhañ liammoù diabarzh; -pavezioù lezet kuzh ha manet dizimplij
D (Robot ouzhpennet: io:Yiddisha linguo)
(Reizhañ liammoù diabarzh; -pavezioù lezet kuzh ha manet dizimplij)
Ur [[yezhoù germanek|yezh c'hermanek]] eo ar '''yideg''' (ייִדיש, ''yidiš'') komzet gant tro-dro da 3 milion a dud ([[1991]]) e [[Stadoù-Unanet Amerika]], [[Israel]], [[Ukraina]], [[Belarus]], [[Rusia]], [[Kanada]], [[ArgentinaArc'hantina]] ha meur a vro all.
Talvezout a ra anv ar yezh ("yiddish") kement ha "[[yuzeviezhyuzevegezh|yuzeveg]]".
''Ashkenaz'' eo ar ger hebreek a veze graet eus Bro-Alamagn er Grennamzer, diwar ur meneg eus Levr ar C'heneliezh 10.3.)
The Medieval Jewish cultural areas did not coincide with the Christian principalities; thus Ashkenaz included Northern France, and bounded on the Sephardic area: the [[Sephardi]], or [[Spain|Spanish]] Jews, who also inhabited southern France. Later, the Ashkenazi territory would spread into [[Eastern Europe]] as well.
The every-day language of the European Jews in the later [[Middle Ages]] was identical with the vernacular of the Christian community, which was [[German language|German]] for most of the Ashkenazi territory. They also used [[Hebrew language|Hebrew]] of course, and no doubt peppered the vernacular with Hebrew [[lexeme]]s. From the [[13th century]] they began to write [[Middle High German]] in Hebrew characters. This move into vernacular literacy is seen by linguists as the beginning of the development of Yiddish, though in this early phase the language is usually referred to as Judeo-German, as it is merely German with a Jewish colouring, a [[jargon]], hardly distinct enough to be called a dialect. Occasionally it is also referred to as Proto-Yiddish.
In the course of the 14th and 15th centuries, songs and poems in Judeo-German, and also macaronic pieces in Hebrew and German, began to be written. These were collected by the late [[15th century]] by [[Menahem ben Naphtali Oldendorf]]. In the same period, a tradition seems to have emerged of Jewish singers singing for the Jewish community their own versions of German secular literature. The earliest Judeo-German epic poem of this sort is the ''[[Dukus Horant]]'' which survives in the famous Cambridge Codex T.-S.10.K.22. This 14th-century manuscript was discovered in the genisa of a Cairo synagogue in 1896, and also contains a collection of narrative poems on themes from the [[Hebrew Bible]] and the [[Haggadah]]
Apart from the obvious use of Hebrew words for specifically Jewish artifacts, it is very difficult to decide how far this 15th century Judeo-German differs from the standard Late Middle High German of the period. A lot depends on how the phonetic values of the Hebrew characters are interpreted, especially with regard to the vowels. There seems, however, to be a consensus that by this period, Judeo-German would have sounded distinctive to the average German, even when no Hebrew lexemes were used. In university faculties, the literature of this period is studied both in departments of Yiddish studies and in departments of Medieval German.
The [[16th century]] witnessed an upswing in writings in what may now be referred to as Old Yiddish. The development of the [[printing press]] contributed significantly to the improved rate of survival of these writings. The most popular work of the 16th century was the 650-stanza ''[[Bovo-Bukh]]'', composed by [[Elia Levita]] (1469-1549) in 1507–1508, which has gone through at least forty print editions, beginning in [[1541]]. [Liptzin, 1972, 4-5] Levita, the earliest named Yiddish author, also wrote ''Paris un Vienne''. Another Judeo-German retelling of a courtly novel which presumably also dates from the 15th century, though the manuscripts are from the 16th, is ''[[Widuwilt]]'', also known as Kinig Artus Hof, an adaptation of the Middle High German romance Wigalois by [[Wirnt von Gravenberg]]. Another significant Old Yiddish writer is [[Avroham ben Schemuel Pikartei]] whose paraphrase on the [[Book of Job]] dates from [[1557]].
While Hebrew always remained the official language of [[Jewish prayer]], the [[Hasidic Judaism|Hasidim]] mixed considerable Yiddish into their Hebrew, and were also responsible for a significant secondary religious literature written in Yiddish. For example, the tales about the [[Baal Shem Tov]] were written largely in Yiddish. In addition, even beyond the Hasidim, Ashkenazic Jewish women traditionally were not literate in Hebrew; women were the main audience of works like the ''Bovo-Bukh'', but there was also a large body of Yiddish religious works written for (and often by) women, such as the ''[[Tseno-Ureno]]'', the memoirs of [[Glückel of Hameln]], and the ''[[tkhine]]s''. [Liptzin, 1972, 4-17]
=== An ''Haskalah'' (Sklêrijennadur) vodern ===
Use of the Western Yiddish dialect began to decline in the [[18th century]], as [[The Enlightenment]] and the ''[[Haskalah]]'' (Jewish Enlightenment) led German Jews to view Yiddish as a "corrupt German". Between assimilation to German and the beginnings of the revival of Hebrew, Western Yiddish was largely squeezed out, surviving mainly as a language of "intimate family circles or of closely knit trade groups such as the cattle-dealers of the [[Eifel]] Mountains. [Liptzin, 1972, 2]
Farther east, where Jews were not surrounded by German speakers, the Eastern Yiddish dialect continued to thrive. The late [[19th century]] and early [[20th century]] are widely considered the Golden Age of [[secular]] Yiddish literature; this period also coincides with the revival of Hebrew as a spoken language, and the revival of Hebrew literature. Some Modern Hebrew words began to find their way into Yiddish, as well.
The three great founders of modern secular Yiddish literature were [[Mendele Mocher Sforim]], [[Sholom Aleichem]], and [[I.L. Peretz]]. Solomon Rabinowitz, better known as [[Sholom Aleichem]] ([[1859]]–[[1916]]), is known as one of the greatest Yiddish authors and humorists, the Yiddish equivalent of [[Mark Twain]]. A collection of his stories about Tevye the Milkman was later the basis of the Broadway musical and film ''[[Fiddler on the Roof]]''.
=== An {{XXvet kantved}} ===
At the start of the [[20th century]], Yiddish was emerging as a major Eastern European language. A rich literature was being published, [[Yiddish theater]] and [[Yiddish film]] were booming, and it had even achieved status as one of the official languages of the [[Belarusian SSR]]. Educational autonomy for Jews in several countries (notably Poland) after [[World War I]] led to an increase in formal Yiddish-language education, standardized pronunciation and spelling, and to the [[1925]] founding of the Yiddish Scientific Institute, later [[YIVO|YIVO Institute for Jewish Research]]. [Liptzin, 1972, 3]
Yiddish emerged as the national language of a large Jewish community in Eastern Europe that rejected [[Zionism]] and sought to obtain Jewish cultural autonomy in Europe. It also contended with [[Modern Hebrew]] as a literary language among Zionists.
On the eve of [[World War II]], there were 10 million Yiddish speakers, overwhelmingly of the Eastern dialects. [Liptzin, 1972, 2] However, [[the Holocaust]] led to a dramatic, sudden decline in the use of Yiddish, as the extensive Jewish communities, both secular and religious, that used Yiddish in their day-to-day life were largely destroyed. Although millions of Yiddish speakers survived the war (including nearly all Yiddish speakers in the Americas), further assimilation in countries such as the United States and the status of Modern Hebrew as the official language of Israel led to a decline in the use of Eastern Yiddish similar to the earlier decline in Western Yiddish.
[[Ethnologue]] estimates that in [[1991]] there were 3 million speakers of Eastern Yiddish, but Western Yiddish, which had only "several tens of thousands" of speakers on the eve of [[the Holocaust]], is now "nearly extinct".
==== Ar yideg en URSS ====
In the [[Soviet Union]], much effort was invested in promoting the use of Yiddish during [[1920s]]. Yiddish was then regarded as the language of "Jewish [[proletariat]]"; at the same time, Hebrew was considered a "[[bourgeois]]" language and its use was generally discouraged. Starting in the [[1930s]], growing [[anti-Semitism|anti-Semitic]] tendencies in Soviet politics drove Yiddish from most spheres; few Yiddish publications survived (among them are the literary magazine ''[[Sovetish Heymland]]'' (1961-1991) and the newspaper ''[[Birobidzhaner Shtern]]'').
In today`s Ukraine [[Aleksandr Abramovic Bejderman]] still writes in Yiddish.
==== Stadoù Unanet ====
In the United States, the Yiddish language bound together Jews from many countries, whose national origin was often as important as their Jewish identity. Within some families, marrying across national origin lines was seen as equivalent to marrying out of the faith. ''[[The Forward]]'', one of seven Yiddish [[New York City|New York]] daily newspapers, and other Yiddish newspapers served as a forum for Jews of all European backgrounds. [Melamed, 1925] American Yiddish music, derived from [[Klezmer]], was another binding mechanism. [[Michel Gelbart]], a very prolific composer, probably best known for "I Have A Little Dreydl," wrote music that was very Jewish ''and'' very American. Thriving Yiddish theatre in New York City and (to a lesser extent) elsewhere kept the language vital. Many "Yiddishisms," like "Italianisms" and "Spanishisms," continued to enter spoken New York English, often used by Jews and non-Jews alike without consciousness of the language of origin of the phrases. In the [[United States]], most Yiddish speakers tended not to pass on the language to their children who assimilated and spoke English.
Largely because of the influence of Jewish entertainment figures in the United States, many Yiddish words have entered the [[American English]] lexicon. In [[1968]], the modern American writer [[Leo Rosten]] ([[1908]]–[[1997]]) published ''[[The Joys of Yiddish]]'' (ISBN 0-7434-0651-6), an introduction to words of Yiddish origin used in the English of the United States. See also "[[Yinglish]]."
In [[1978]], the European-born secular Yiddish writer [[Isaac Bashevis Singer]], a resident of the United States, received the [[Nobel Prize in literature]].
==== Israel ====
In [[Israel]] Yiddish was displaced by [[Modern Hebrew]]. In part this reflected the conflict between religious and secular forces. Many in the larger, secular group wanted a new national language to foster a cohesive identity, while traditionally religious Jews desired that Hebrew be respected as a holy language reserved for prayer and religious study. However, this conflict also reflected the opposing views among secular Jews worldwide, one side seeing Hebrew (and [[Zionism]]) and the other Yiddish (and [[internationalism (politics)|Internationalism]]) as the means of defining emerging Jewish nationalism.
Many of the older immigrants to Israel from the former [[USSR]] (usually those above 50 years of age) speak or understand some degree of Yiddish.
In religious circles, it is the [[Ashkenazi]] [[Haredi Judaism|Haredi Jews]], particularly the [[Hasidic Judaism|Hasidic Jews]] and the [[Mitnagdim]] of the Lithuanian [[yeshiva]] world, who continue to teach, speak and use Yiddish, making it a language used intensely by hundreds of thousands of [[Haredi Judaism|Haredi Jews]] today. The largest of these centers are in [[Bene Beraq]] and [[Jerusalem]].
The major exception to the decline of spoken Yiddish can be found in the [[Haredi Judaism|Haredi]] Jewish communities all over the world. Among most Haredim all over the world, [[Hebrew language|Hebrew]] is generally reserved for prayer and religious studies, while Yiddish is reserved as a home and business language.
In today`s Ukraine [[Aleksandr Abramovic Bejderman]] still writes in Yiddish.
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